General Guidelines when writing for ESCalate

Writing guidelines

It would be much appreciated if authors could write with the following points in mind:

1. ESCalate prefers US to ‘American’, USA to ‘United States’, and UK to ‘United Kingdom’.

2 . ESCalate uses conservative British, not US, spelling, i.e. colour not color; behaviour (behavioural) not behavior; [school] programme not program; practises not practices; centre not center; organisation not organization; analyse not analyze, etc.

3. Single ‘quotes’ are used for quotations rather than double "quotes", unless the ‘quote is "within" another quote’.

4. Punctuation should follow the British style, e.g. ‘quotes precede punctuation’.

5. Punctuation of common abbreviations should follow the following conventions: e.g. i.e. cf. Note that such abbreviations are not followed by a comma or a (double) point/period.

6. Dashes (M-dash) should be clearly indicated in manuscripts by way of either a clear dash (—) or a triple hyphen (---), (N-dash) should be indicated with a clear dash (–) or a double hyphen.

7. ESCalate  is sparing in its use of the upper case in headings and references, e.g. only the first word in paper titles and all subheads is in upper case; titles of papers from journals in the references and other places are not in upper case.

8. Apostrophes should be used sparingly. Thus, decades should be referred to as follows: ‘The 1980s [not the 1980’s] saw ...’. Possessives associated with acronyms (e.g. APU), should be written as follows: ‘The APU’s findings that ...’, but, NB, the plural is APUs.

9. All acronyms for national agencies, examinations, etc., should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the acronym can be used if appropriate, e.g. ‘The work of the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) in the early 1980s ...’. Subsequently, ‘The APU studies of achievement ...’, in a reference ... (Department of Education and Science [DES] 1989a).

10. Brief biographical details of significant national figures should be outlined in the text unless it is quite clear that the person concerned would be known. Some suggested editorial emendations to a typical text are indicated in the following with square brackets: ‘From the time of H. E. Armstrong [in the 19th century] to the curriculum development work associated with the Nuffield Foundation [in the 1960s], there has been a shift from heurism to constructivism in the design of [British] science courses’.

11. The preferred local (national) usage for ethnic and other minorities should be used in all papers. For the USA, African-American, Hispanic, and Native American are used, e.g. ‘The African-American presidential candidate, Jesse Jackson...’ For the UK, African-Caribbean (not ‘West Indian’), etc.

12. Material to be emphasised (italicised in the printed version) should be underlined in the typescript rather than italicised. Please use such emphasis sparingly.

13. n (not N), % (not per cent) should be used.

14. Numbers in text should take the following forms: 300, 3000, 30 000. Spell out numbers under 10 unless used with a unit of measure, e.g. nine pupils but 9 mm (do not introduce periods with measure). For decimals, use the form 0.05 (not .05).

15. When using a word which is or is asserted to be a proprietary term or trade mark authors’ must use the symbol ® or TM or alternatively a footnote can be inserted using the wording below:

This article includes a word which is or is asserted to be a proprietary term or trade mark. Its inclusion does not imply it has acquired for legal purposes a non-proprietary or general significance, nor is any other judgement implied concerning its legal status. 


§         Please use the Harvard system of referencing.

§         A reminder: this gives the name of the author and the date of publication as a key to the full bibliographical details, which are set out in the list of references. When the author's name is mentioned in the text, the date is inserted in parentheses immediately after the name, as in 'Ball (1981)'. When a less direct reference is made to one or more authors, both name and date are bracketed, with the references separated by a semi-colon, as in 'several authors have noted this trend (Carr, 1989; Grundy, 1982; Kemmis, 1984)'. When the reference is to a work of dual or multiple authorship, use only surnames of the abbreviated form as in 'Salter and Tapper (1981)' or Broadfoot et al. If an author has two references published in the same year, add lower case letters after the date to distinguish them, as in 'Elliott (1980a, 1980b)'. For direct quotations use the minimum number of figures in page numbers, dates, etc., e.g. 22-4, 105-6 (but 112-13) for teen numbers and 1968-9.

§         Direct quotations of 40 words or more will be printed as prose extracts; page reference numbers will be required.

§         Notes should be used only where necessary to avoid interrupting the continuity of the text. They should be numbered consecutively using superscript Arabic numerals. They should appear at the end of the main text, immediately before the list of references.

§         References should be indicated in the typescript by giving the author's name, with the year of publication in parentheses. If several papers by the same author and from the same year are cited, a, b, c, etc. should be put after the year of publication. The references should be listed in full, including pages, at the end of the paper in the following standard form:

§         For books: Bowley, J. (1988) A secure base (London, Routledge).

§         Articles: Winnicott, D.W, (1960) The theory of the parent-infant relationship, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 41(1), 485-95.

§         For chapters: Little, A. (1990) The role of assessment re-examined in international context, in: P. Broadfoot, R. Murphy & H. Torrance (Eds) Changing educational assessment (London, Routledge), 53-75.

§         For online documents: Standler, R. (2000) Plagiarism in colleges in the USA. Available online at: (accessed 6 August 2004).

Notes on tables and figures

1. Tables and figures should be referred to in text as follows: figure 1, table 1, i.e. lower case. ‘As seen in table [or figure] 1 ...’ (not Tab., fig. or Fig).

2. The place at which a table or figure is to be inserted in the printed text should be indicated clearly on a manuscript:

Insert table 2 about here

3. Each table and/or figure must have a title that explains its purpose without reference to the text.

4. All figures and tables must be on separate sheets and not embedded in the text.

Thus tables and figures must be referred to in the text and numbered in order of appearance. Each table should have a descriptive title and each column an appropriate heading. For all figures, original copies of figures should be supplied. All figures should allow for reduction to column width (7.5cm) or page width (16 cm). Photographs may be sent as glossy prints or negatives, but electronic files (tiff or jpeg) are preferred. The legends to any illustrations must be typed separately following the text and should be grouped together.

Thank you